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  • keithmroberts

    How NOT to use blogs

    By keithmroberts

    This area is not for queries but for ongoing blogs. if you want to ask for help, please go to the appropriate sub-forum in the main part of the GWF. You have been asked to make your first post in a specified location. Once you have done that, your query can be raised in the various sections of the forum. If you previously posted a request for help or information in this area, it is likely to be deleted at some point in the next few weeks or months. So if you have a reply, please make a note of it, If not, can you re-post it in the appropriate part of the forum, which is likely to get you a quick response. Keith Roberts for the GWF team
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  1. EdK's Blog

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    OK, stick with me as we travel together the rocky road of creativity (or at least documentation). I will try to do periodic updates of my progress in writing my book which is largely based on the 80 or so letters my grandfather wrote back to his wife in 1916/1917 from the UK. I have at least got the title for the book, I think.

    Here is my draft front and back pages for the book:

    Front cover:

    NOT

    THIS

    HELL

    OF

    STRIFE

    The WW1 letters of Thomas Kermode

    Bombing Instructor

    1916 - 1917

    [insert image here - re bombing school, Hurdcott - see next bit of blog by me ...]

    Back cover:

    "Not this hell of strife & bullying & perpetual alarms. Nothing secure, nothing stable. Violence tonight, the whole week long, & month after month of it. Bayonet & bomb & bullet. All desperate murder & killing till it becomes sickening."

    So writes Thomas Kermode on 12 December 1916 as his inner struggle intensifies and he hardens his resolve to find a way back home to wife and kiddies. Amidst the uncertainty of his fate, Thomas's stands firm and ultimately triumphs. But is it really a triumph? Was Thomas Kermode, DCM & King's Corporal in the Boer War, a hero or a coward in WW1? Or, like all of us, a bit of both? As you read Thomas's story, you will form you own view. We could never know the truth, not even if we were Thomas himself. This book takes us as close as we ever could be to standing in his muddy boots on Salisbury Plain, retrieving an unexploded grenade.

    In some 80 letters Thomas records events and his emotional rollercoaster experiences literally (at times) as they happen. The camaraderie, the grind, the pride, the disillusionment, the spirit, the apprehension, the awe, the anger, the guilt, the longing, the "grin and bear it" determination, the heartache, the humour. And much more. Thomas's WW1 experience was unlike most other participants. His war was within himself and against the army system.

    The book is often in subject order using Thomas's own words. The letters are published complete as an appendix.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    And here is my draft of the first chapter:

    NOT THIS HELL OF STRIFE

    by Ed Kermode

    Chapter One

    Introduction: This book tells a simple story. Yet it has layer upon layer of complexity to it. The main character is Thomas Kermode, my grandfather. The book is based largely on the letters he wrote home in 1916 and 1917.

    Here is the sequence of events, in broadest terms:

    Decorated Boer War veteran enlists and leaves for the UK

    He regrets it almost immediately

    Despite some early positive experiences

    The situation deteriorates for various reasons

    He inwardly rebels against the army

    He loses his sergeants stripes and extra duty pay over a trivial matter

    As a result, he openly rebels against the army

    He succeeds in efforts to be classified Ciii (unfit for duty)

    This occurs only after a period of great uncertainty, worry and stress

    He returns home to South Australia as an AMC (Army Medical Corps) personnel on troopship/hospital ship Pakeha

    Decorated Boer War Veteran enlists and leaves for the UK

    Thomas Kermode (born 29 March 1879) was a young man and single when he fought in the Boer War. He enlisted in Adelaide, South Australia as Trooper Kermode of the 5th IBC (Imperial Bushmen's Contingent) with army number 495 (as per the Australian War Memorial Nominal Roll).

    [insert photo here with caption "Corporal Thomas Kermode (photo taken in 1902 on return from South Africa)"]

    He fought in various engagements including at Graspan - Reitz (6th June 1901) and at Grootvlei Farm (1st/2nd August 1901, where he was awarded a DCM and was promoted in the field to King's Corporal. The citation for the DCM reads as follows: "South Australian Mounted Inf. --- 495 Trpr T. Kermode (promoted Corpl.); for conspicuous gallantry in attack on Grootvlei, Aug. 1; he was first man into the farm and bayonetted the first man, and although wounded in three places, continued to fight" - London Gazette: 10 September 1901; page 5980, position 2. He was also mentioned in despatches - London Gazette: 15 November 1901; page 7384, position 1.

    He returned to civilian life in rural South Australia and at the time of enlistment for WW1 he was married with three young children and owned a farm at Pyap, near Loxton. Enlistment was at Mitcham (check this) on 4 February 1916 (attestation date). Army Service No. 3581. Rank Acting Sergeant. Unit: 8th reinforcement/32nd Battalion AIF. Thomas was 36 yrs and 10 months old. He stood 5 feet 11 inches tall and weighed about 14 stone. He trained at Mitcham Camp (eastern suburb of Adelaide City) until embarkation at Adelaide on 12 August 1916, some 6 months.

    Mitcham training etc (passing mention of, in his letters):

    8/9/1916 Ballarat (ship) - Orderly Sergt on a troopship is something similar to what I had to do at Mitcham.

    22/9/1916 Ballarat (ship) - I miss the taste of the food at home. Mitcham camp was tasteless enough …

    1/10/1916 Codford No. 13 Camp - A very intense system is in vogue & men are made soldiers, not by playing like we did at Mitcham.

    8/10/1916 Codford Camp - Many men are paraded for things overlooked at Mitcham.

    18/10/1916 Codford Camp - but all the same, Mitcham education is not to be despised.

    20/10/1916 Codford No. 13 Camp - We still are pursuing our studies. It is almost like the N.C.O. school at Mitcham again

    1/11/1916 Codford Camp - We cannot escape like I used to at Mitcham

    3/11/1916 Codford Camp - All the subjects taught at Mitcham were very good & they certainly don't do any better here.

    3/11/1916 Codford No. 13 Camp - Saluting & coming to attention is smarter but anything else is the same.

    3/11/1916 Codford No. 13 Camp - It (Sgt's position) is several times worse than Mitcham for fighting for place.

    13/12/1916 Hurdcott - Nobody goes for trips to Adelaide in the Mitcham electric car & char-a-bancs.

    28/12/1916 Hurdcott - I am orderly sergt today, tho' it is nothing so easy as Mitcham

    30/12/1916 Hurdcott - (re discipline and winning respect of the men) although it was tough going at Mitcham & on the boat it won at last & they highly loved me.

    8/4/1917 Fovant Hospital - Huts built like those we had at Mitcham, only with sides & windows

    4/8/1917 Hurdcott - I am still wearing the same hat that I did in Mitcham

    Embarkation:

    20/09/1916 (on the Ballarat) Your face was Oh so sad the last I saw of it, at the Outer Harbor. You realized then, my dear, what was happening. You were blanched with loneliness & tears were hanging like a cloud in your eyes.

    13/07/1917 Hurdcott It will be 12 months next month since I last saw you at the Outer Harbour & waving that doll & big tears in your eyes. I saw you until the crowd became one blur & could see you no more. That was a long while ago.

    [That's it, so far - what do you think? By the way, I have entered all the letters onto a database, over 4,000 records. An awful long way to go before the whole story is told in Thomas's and/or my words.]

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    And here is a snippet of some of the subjects recorded in that database:

    Attitude - figuring out ways of getting home again

    attitude - patriotism subjugated, this is the only chance of return home

    attitude - to entertainers

    attitude - to entertainers (reminds Thomas of May and home)

    Attitude compared with Boer War

    Attitude pessimistic

    Attitude positive/philosophical

    Attitude positive/philosophical/hopeful

    Attitude re Germans in Australia voting on conscription

    Attitude to African natives

    Attitude to army discipline

    Attitude to army discipline etc - pride dealt a blow as private

    Attitude to army lectures/orders

    Attitude to being at

    Attitude to Belgians

    Attitude to censors reading his letters to May

    Attitude to chances of avoiding France

    Attitude to chances of return home

    Attitude to chances of return home - first mention of Weymouth

    Attitude to chances of return home - to go to Weymouth in two days time

    Attitude to christianity

    Attitude to civilian men who have not enlisted

    Attitude to conscription

    Attitude to courage of nations involved in the war

    Attitude to death

    Attitude to discipline etc

    Attitude to England

    Attitude to England compared with Australia

    Attitude to English & Australians, hostile

    Attitude to English upper class

    Attitude to English women

    Attitude to enlisting

    Attitude to enlisting - origional feeling/reason to do so still with him

    Attitude to excess

    Attitude to farm if not sold

    Attitude to farm life wheat etc

    Attitude to French/France

    Attitude to future

    Attitude to German neighbours

    Attitude to Germans in Australia who have not enlisted

    Attitude to Germany

    Attitude to Germany U-boats

    Attitude to his situation

    Attitude to his situation - a "self-putdown"? &/or signifying a change in his perception of self and his situation? IMP?

    Attitude to his situation - could make a go of it if May were here with him

    Attitude to his situation - leaving Hurdcott

    Attitude to his situation - leaving UK etc

    Attitude to his situation - pleased at own decision not to have operation

    Attitude to his situation - predicts will be home for Christmas dinner

    Attitude to his situation - professes to not feel guilty in going home to Australia

    Attitude to his situation - raring to go, after spell at Tidworth & in Fovant hospital

    attitude to his situation - reasons why he should NOT stay

    Attitude to his situation - reasons why he should NOT stay, sop to conscience

    Attitude to his situation - reasons why he should stay

    Attitude to his situation - states preference for France but knows that is unlikely

    Attitude to his situation - still uncertain

    Attitude to his situation - strategy/actions were so Thomas could get home sooner to May & kids

    Attitude to his situation - works the system

    Attitude to home life, etc

    Attitude to home life, etc

    Attitude to his age.

    Attitude to horses

    Attitude to hospital

    Attitude to Irish

    Attitude to legal protection/agreements

    Attitude to marrying May

    Attitude to May's letterwriting

    Attitude to meeting up with

    Attitude to money

    Attitude to news that May helped by neighbours

    Attitude to officers

    Attitude to process of getting back home

    Attitude to process of getting back home - settled and "in control"

    Attitude to process of getting back home - undecided but "in control"

    Attitude to prostitutes

    Attitude to rank & file

    Attitude to rumours

    Attitude to smoking

    Attitude to the sea

    Attitude to theft and profiteering

    Attitude to Thomas K

    Attitude to Thomas K & vice versa

    Attitude to time-wasting

    Attitude to troops in France

    Attitude to unmarried troops' situation

    Attitude to VD

    Attitude to war - determined

    Attitude to war - did not matter who started it

    Attitude to war

    Attitude to wheat growing

    Attitude to women

    Attitude to work

    Attitude to work dodging &seeking warmth

    Attitude to, by British

    Attitude towards

    Attitude towards coalminers, wharf-lumpers, etc

    Attitude/response to May's letterwriting

    Austerity measures

    Austerity measures - Government backdown

    Australia affirmed

    Australian troops affirmed by

    Australian, proud of being

    Ballarat (travel in)ballarat sinking - Thos sends newspaper article to May

    Ballarat's progress

    Ballarat's seaworthiness

    Band/music

    Battalion Orderly Sergeant today

    Battalion parade - Major falls on his bum due to icy ground

    Been in UK 15 months, seen no fighting, just lucky

    Befriends Sergt Major of Mons (Ware)

    Behaviour

    Behaviour - emotional bank invested towards May

    Behaviour new years eve

    Behaviour of Ballarat ship's company towards

    Behaviour on night prior to departure

    Behaviour, ribald

    Bijou Theatre vaudeville performance by

    Bluff and combativeness

    Bombing display - two men hospitalised

    Bombing sergeants, only ones left with Thomas

    Bombing work, believed in by

    Book

    Bought item lost on holidays while sober

    Brave face kept despite fears

    Burial at sea prompts morbid thoughts from

    Thomas

    Buys mementoC iii mates

    cable - suggests May cable him every 8 weeks or so

    Cable address of, sent to May

    Cable sent by - well, after hospital stay, and not to France yet

    Cable sent by - will May answer it

    Cable to be sent when leaving Weymouth

    Cables worth the money

    Camp (Hurdcott) becoming empty due to lack of reinforcements (crucial change?)

    Camp (Hurdcott) practically empty (cause = ?) on Thos return from leave

    Camp address, exact given to May

    Camp conditions described

    Camp conditions described - C company merged with B company

    Camp conditions described - camaraderie

    Camp conditions described - daylight saving time means getting up an hour earlier

    Camp conditions described - daytime activity

    Camp conditions described - disease

    Camp conditions described - early morning routine

    Camp conditions described - food

    Camp conditions described - icy slippery ground: hard to keep one's footing

    Camp conditions described - lack of good cheer

    Camp conditions described - lice

    Camp conditions described - nice quiet day

    Camp conditions described - no washing facilities or hot water (camp only new)

    Camp conditions described - short of men, need more recruits

    Camp conditions described - slack atmosphere due to Christmas etc

    Ed K

  2. pc57's Blog

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    paulcarlin
    Latest Entry

    Our story begins in the townlands of Aughtermoy, Ballinamallagh near Dunnamanagh, Co. Tyrone, N. Ireland. A rural, mainly bog or marshy land, with pockets of grazing pastures for both dairy and beef cattle. Farmsteads were mostly small with a few acres attached and on the whole were owned by Roman Catholic farmers.

    1876.

    James Carlin marries Margaret Bridget Rodgers, both full age and residing in Aughtermoy. The marriage took place in the Roman Catholic Church at Killena, Dunnamanagh, by the Rev D Doherty. James's Father, Hugh Carlan was a labourer, as was Hugh Rodgers, Bridget's Father. The witnesses to the marriage were: Joseph White and Rose Rodgers. James was a," labourer" and Bridget was recorded as a, "Servant". They have six children: Catherine (1878), Bridget (1880), John (1881), Jane (1884), Hugh (1885) and finally William in (1887).

    1888

    Within three miles of Aughtermoy, is the townlands of Meendamph and Ballinamallagh. Here on 12th February 1888, Charles Mc Cullagh married Mary Slevin. Both were full age, Charles resided at Meendamph while Mary resided at Ballinamallagh, Charles's occupation was a labourer. Both fathers; Charles Mc Cullagh (Deceased) and James Slevin, were "Farmers" and the witnesses to the marriage were: Michael Mc Grinder and Rose Donaghey. The marriage was preformed by the Rev B Mulholland cc. The marriage produced 4 children: Charles (1899), Annie (1892), twins Rosey & Minnie (1896). When Charles Snr died, Mary's Mother Mary moved into the Charles and Mary's house in Ballinamallagh.

    1893

    James Carlin passed away on 12th June 1893 aged 41, suffering from Phtlusis for years. His death was registered by his Father Hugh Carlin who was present at the death at Bunowen in the townland of Ballynenor on the 15th June 1893. He was survived by his wife Bridget and family of six.

    1898

    John Carlin joins the Enniskillen Fusiliers in 1898 aged 17years and 6 months. He served in a number of countries and had a lengthy military record. He returned home and married Ellan Melaugh on 6th July 1908.

    1898

    Bridget Carlin ( James & Margret`s Daughter), married Robert Boyle in the RC Church on Strabane. Robert was an "Adult" and Bridget was 19 years old, a Bachelor and Spinster. His occupation was a "Heckler" and Bridget a "Mill Worker". Robert was residing at Bearney Strabane and Bridget at Carrigullen Strabane. Robert`s Father was Neal Boyle and Bridget`s : James Carlin. Both Father`s are recorded as " Labourers". The witnesses to the marriage were: John Howard and Annie Howard( her mark). The marriage was conducted by Rev Joseph Bradley CC.

    1901

    In the 1901 census of Ireland, We find Bridget Carolan living in No. 15 Carrigullen Rd in the townland of Edymore, Camus, Strabane. In the household at the address we have:

    Bridger Carolan (head of Family) aged 46, Roman Catholic and a widow.

    William Carolan male son aged 15, a Roman Catholic, "Spreader" in spinning mill, not married and he can read and write.

    Hugh Carolan male son aged 17, Roman Catholic, "Spreader" in spinning mill, not married, he can also read and write.

    Bridget Boyle female daughter aged 20, Roman Catholic, "Reeler" in spinning mill, married and she can read and write.

    Mary Boyle female Grand Daughter aged 1 year, Roman Catholic, not married and cannot read nor write.

    In the Townland of Ballinamallagh, at a house owned by a John Donnell, we find the Mc Cullagh Family. Head of the Family is Charles aged 40 and a Farmer. His Wife Mary, a Seamstress aged 30, her mother Mary, a Widow aged 70, Charles his Son a scholar aged 12, all can read & write. Next we have Annie, his Daughter aged 9 along with Rosey and Minie the twins aged 5, neither can read nor write. The entire family are Roman Catholic.

    1904

    On Monday the 10th October 1904, Annie Mc Cullagh( McCollugh), left the quiet townland of Ballinamallagh and travel the 14 or so miles to Derry.At Derry port she boarded the SS Columbia and sailed off to Philadelphia USA, she was 11 years old. . We believe she traveled with a "Annie Rodgers", possibly a cousin,their destination in Philadelphia was: 2133 Mountroserose St,where she was staying with her Aunt also called Annie Mc Cullagh. From family stories that have been passed down and one photograph, it was said she disliked it so much she returned some (2 ) years later in 1908,sailing from New York to Derry on board the White Star liner the "Laurentic", vowing never to return! On her arrival back in Ireland she took up work as a servant and We find her working for the Dick family in Douglas Burn in the Townland of Knockannilar, Legfrodrum Strabane in 1911.

    1906

    William Carlin service No.8509, joined the Royal Enniskillen Fusiliers on the 28th January. He served a total of 9 years and 163 days and was posted to: France, Crete, Malta, China and finally took part in the expeditionary to France on the 28th April 1914. He was discharged on medical grounds with "inflamation of the middle ear" on the 20th June 1915.

    1908

    John Carlin married Ellen Melaugh in the RC Church in Strabane. Both were "Full Age", John is recorded as a Labourer. Both are residing at Bearney Strabane. James Carlin is John`s Father and Christopher Melaugh is Ellen`s Father. The ocupation of both Father`s is recorded as Labourer`s and the witnesses to the marriage were : John Melaugh and Jane Carlin( her mark). The marriage was preformed by Rev Peter Tracy CC.

    1911

    Bridget Carlin is residing at an address 18 Bearney Glebe, Strabane. Her age is given as 67 and a widow. With her in the house is:

    Jane Carlin 21, Daughter, a "Spinner" in local flax mill, single and

    George Carlin 1 year, Grandson.

    At 17 Bearney Glebe, Strabane, we have Bridget`s Son, Hugh Carlin 25 with an occupation recorded as "Navy". With Hugh is:

    Susan Carlin 26 Wife,

    Cassie Daughter 3 and Annie Daughter 2

    !913

    Charles Mc Cullagh joined the Leciestershire Regiment cycle corp on 16th March 1913. He made the rank of Lance Corporal and fought in the batttle of Bailleul in Belgium. It was here that Charles is beleived to have died. What followes is a discription of his regiments movements and battle details for the date of his death, we can only assume he was involved in this battle in some manner:

    1913

    On the 12th October 1913, Hugh Moan married Jane Carlin in St ary`s RC Church Melount, Strabane. Both were "Full Age" and Both resided at Ballyfatton, Sionmills. Hugh was a Labourer and Jane a "Mill Worker" The names of their Fathers were: Hugh Moan and James Carlin and their occupations were both Labourer`s. The withnesses to the arriage were: Bob Ward and Teresa Mc Cay. The service was prefored by the Rev P O Doherty CC.

    1ST Leicester War Diary

    The 1st Leicester's 15.04.1918

    The war diary for today records that the Battalion were in the front line in the Neuve Eglise sector. Patrols sent out throughout the night, no definite information gained. One prisoner a German Officer captured on Neuve Eglise – Dranoutre Road. At 10.30am Operational Order number 300 received from Brigade placing one Company of 9th Norfolk Regiment hitherto attached to us under order of Officer Commanding 9th Norfolk Regiment. Quiet morning, Brigade Major and Brigade I. O. called at 12 o clock and went round line with Commanding Officer. At 1.30pm very heavy shelling of area held by Battalion commenced. The shelling gradually increased in intensity and reached its climax about 3.00pm. Telephone lines to Brigade held until about 3.15pm and from communications heard it was gathered that 9th Norfolk Regiment on our right had been attacked and driven back. A counter attack temporally resolved the situation, but remaining troops were not sufficiently strong to hold the line. This made the position of our right Company somewhat precarious, but they held on although a runner reported at Battalion HQ's that they had left some of their trenches at 3.15pm. A defensive flank was formed valley in S. 12.d. by one platoon of B Company and Battalion HQ's. Later reports indicated that A company were compelled to evacuate their trenches about 4.30pm owing to very heavy shelling and in order to get touch with 9th Norfolk Regiment on right, who had withdrawn to the line of the railway S.12.a. At 4.25pm D Company on left reported that everything was all right, casualties slight. B Company reported frequently during bombardment 1.30 to 3.30pm about which time the intensity of the bombardment considerably decreased. At 5.00pm the enemy brought up a field gun to within a few hundred yards of the front line which commenced firing point blank at our trenches. At 6.30pm a message was received from A Company advising that their line ran as follows: - S.12.d. 20.50 (12 men), S.12.d. 30.70 (6 men), S.12.d. 50.80 (7 men). Enemy at S.12.c and advancing, nobody visible on right. One platoon of C Company under 2nd Lt. Sims had been sent to support A Company about 4.30pm. At 7.15pm situation advised to Brigade as follows: - Left Company as usual. Left centre Company as usual except for one platoon in reserve sent to reinforce right Company. Right centre Company strong point T.7.a. 15.80 to S.12.d. 90.60. A Company and one platoon of C Company, HQ's S.12.d. 75.50 to S.12.d. 30.50 facing east-south, one platoon at S.12.a. 70.60. Still in reserve one platoon left centre Company. Battalion HQ's established at T.7.a. 15.00. Enemy believed to be at S.12.d. 70.20 and S.12.c. 20.20. At 7.50pm remaining reserve platoon sent to assist right Company to hold their line. Instructions sent to A Company not to retire except under pressure and to join up with 9th Norfolk Regiment holding line of railway in S.12.a. if need be. At 8.00pm A Company reported enemy concentrating for an attack on their front and more men urgently needed to help hold his line, all available servants and orderlies were sent forward pending arrival of 12 men asked for from C Company. Eventually enough men were obtained to hold the line continuously, the support platoon of D Company being called upon to fill the gap. Barrage was put down by the artillery and the attack came to nothing. Officer Commanding B Company reported all quiet at 9.20pm. At 9.00pm Brigade Operational Order number 301 was received informing us to hold on to our positions. Casualties, other ranks A Company 3 killed, 25 wounded, 8 missing. B Company 11 wounded. C Company 2 killed, 7 wounded, 1 missing. D Company 2 killed, 1 missing. Casualties, officers Lt. A. Hill killed, Lt. W. Clancey wounded.

    1915

    On the 1st August William Carlin married Annie Mc Cullagh in the RC Church in Strabane. Both were "Full age" and a Bachelor and a Spinster. William was a Labourer and Annie a Servant. William is residing at Bearney Strabane and Annie at Liskey Strabane. James Carlin and Charles Mc Cullagh are the respective Fathers and both are recorded as Labourers. Witnesses to the Marriage were: William Moan and Minnie Mc Cullagh. The couple were married by the Rev Hugh Mc Glynn CC.

    1919

    On Thursday 5th June, at Bearney crossroads, John Carlin had returned from a fair in Strabane Town. He climbed a tree and was showing a number of people arcobatics that he had witnessed that day in Strabane. He fell out of the tree and died 2 days later on Saturday 7th from a fractured scull. He was 38 years old. At his funeral he was accorded a full military funeral with a band from the Royal Inniskillen Fusiliers playing.

  3. trelawney126's Blog

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    trelawney126
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    Looking back into my dim and distant childhood, I remember with fondness the Christmas's when all the family got together.

    My grandfather served in the Great War and was a stretcher bearer during the battle of the Somme. Immaculately dressed he was

    always resplendant in his collar and tie. Wilf, was another face one could see on this annual pilgrimage, like my grandfather Wilf had

    also served in France during the Great War.

    My grandfather also served in the second world war, and I can still remember a photograph of him wearing the uniform of an RAF sergeant, which

    perched precariously on the mantlepiece which looked like the picture and frame would shortly be taking flying lessons.

    My parents occupied the sofa, dad was a Petty Officer Gunnery Instructor and had served in the Royal Navy during WW2 similarly my mother was

    an ex WRAAF telephonist.

    It was inevitable that with such a pedigree both myself and my two brothers would end up serving the colours. My two brothers joined the Army and

    I, the Navy.

    Later in life, having married i found out that my wifes geat grandfather had served in the Lancashire Fusiliers and was killed in 1917 at Paschendale, having served in

    Gallipoli and Egypt. ( Thanks to Alan) . We visited Tyne Cott for the second time, this year, to pay our respects.

    Sadly I cannot recall talking to anyone in my family about their experiences and regret now all the missed opportunities that can never be regained.

    The last "Tommy" has passed and soon another generation will join them.

    Thankfully there are those on this forum who have taken an interest and are able to make up for all the times when first hand information was available.

    It isn't until one starts to do a bit of research that you fully realise what you have had and sadly what we have lost.

  4. I am on vacation in Perth and return to work in Kazakhstan next week. Good news is I am working my notice and will return to a new job in Perth in December! Spent the holiday consolidating my collection and indexing it all. Some things will be on ebay soon! Collected my new bike from the dealer today. Planning a road trip from Perth to Melbourne. Working on setting up a website dedicated to 7th Beds Rgt.

  5. mortimer's Blog

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    When I was three years old I told my mother I was going to be a soldier, so it came to pass fifteen years later. But that was all a lifetime ago. When I was nine I bought my first medals at school. That was the begining of a lifelong interest in warfare & militaria. Now I'm a war pensioner with three medals of my own & a BA (Hon) in War Studies. No longer a soldier I still work for the MOD in phaleristics.

    From time to time I use the GWF professionally, as do many of my co workers, we all find it a boon to research. I'm the first to admit I certainly don't know all the answers & there are MANY people on the GWF have a knowledge of the conflagration that is second to none.

    SADLY I find, from time to time, resistance, when other members of the GWF discover I collect medals, usually evident from my question. I suppose I could say my grandfather was Gunner 'so in so' & pretend I'm after a bit of info on his unit etc but my conscience wouldn't allow it. To many, the medal collector, in general, is little better then a thief. That is very sad. True there are unscrupulous 'collectors'. But most are facinated by the man & history behind the medals & why they were awarded. I try to add as much research to a man/medal I can & if It turns out later that I dispose of the medal, not for the first time back to the family, my heart is cheered.

    What the uninitiated should remember is that medals left veterans for MANY reasons, usually economic. At one stage in the 1920's Manchester pawn brokers refused to accept pledged medals. It is a little known fact that only around 10% of WW1 medal issued still exist! If it had not been for collectors this figure would now be even less! Many of the base metal medals were thrown away after being rejected by the 'pop shop'. Ever wonder why one can see an MM/BWM for sale minus Star/Victory medal - the former two were often bought by a collector. After the Great War parades of rightly disgruntled veterans could be seen, some wearing the pawn ticket where their medals should be, a source of national guilt, some land fit for a hero 'eh. There are at least two sides to every story. I work with the public every day & nine times out of ten they admit the family no longer have their relatives 'gongs'. I always advise them to advertise on one of the various medal reuniting sites on the net.

  6. spiritbird's Blog

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    I never knew my Grandfather, he died before I was born

    On a battle field in Flanders, on a late September morn

    A young man in his prime was he, who never raised his son

    No part of him was ever found, when battle it was won

    But I bear his name with pride because, a heo still is he

    Who gave his life for everyone, especially you and me

    He speaks to me from spirit, though I never hear his words

    He talks to me in sunlight, in animals and birds

    I feel his very presence, his hand upon my arm

    His guidance and protection, still keeping me from harm

    Like those who went before him and those who followed on

    He lives within the spirit, of every fathers son

    Like him I know your loved ones, are with you every day

    Their love for you is endless, it nevr goes away

    They are reaching out to touch you, To comfort and to guide

    Never ever leaving, but walking by your side

    So remember those in spirit, as they remember you

    Give honour to their memory

    In everything you do.

  7. Royal's Blog

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    I always think it strange in a way that all four oldest brothers (great great great uncles) went to France and returned. 3 out of the 4 were RAMC.

    One was gassed but still lived until the early 1970's with his wife in a little chocolate box cottage.

    One was Maj Gen Sir Smith Dorien's batman. After Smith Dorien lost favour with high command and was sent to Gibralter as Governor, my great great great uncle went with him and never saw action again.

    The other two....i dont know about.

    On the other side of the family, one of my great great great uncles was killed in his barrack room in Belfast by a friend after returning at the very end of 1918. They had been on the ranges and his friend had not cleared his rifle. As he was taking it apart, he fired off the round and shot him in the back. So sad to go through all of the hell of France and die in such a tragic way. I have a photo postcard of his funeral with full military honours in Nottingham plus newspaper clippings, his Victory medal and death plaque. Needless to say i check my rifle properly when firing live rounds!!

    Has anyone else had brothers etc that went to war and both or all returned?

  8. Ordinary Joe's Blog

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    My first entry into Blog world. I will learn as I go. The usual, ken?

    Am very interested in anything Great War, particularly concerning the Village and environs of Aberfeldy Perthshire, and the men from the Burgh, who served and fell in the Great War.

    Mike

  9. gerrytell's Blog

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    I am looking for information and photographs of 2 men that died near Ieper Christopher Owen O'Brien and Richard Rennicks they were both killed in action on the same date today 8th march 1915 and 1917, Thats todays date spooky or what. I am going to Belgium next week and intend to plant some shamrock on their graves. Christopher was a distant cousin and Richard is from near where I live and his grand nephew is my brother in law. Nobody in my family knows anything about either men. It's like they went to war and were erased from memory. I would love to know how they died and get a photo of them, I know there were many men from my area who died in WW1 but I would like to research these first. If anyone can help it would be great.

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    I have just emailed Ordnance Survey and asked WHY War Memorials are not listed on their maps and if they have any intention in the future to list them.

    Nice as it may be, to have Public Houses listed, surely War Memorials are equally (if not more) important. Wouldn't it be nice when on holiday, to be able to stroll and pay respects at a local WM which you have just noted on your map.

    If any of you feel as strongly as me re this, drop me a line.

    Memorialhunter

  10. Sherpamick's Blog

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    Hi all, I am posting this as a blog, because I feel it does not fit any of the forums catagories. I am presenting a talk on the Royal Irish Regiment at Le Pilly (Oct 1914) and I have a Powerpoint presentation, but I want to produce 5no maps showing troop movements over the 3 day period of the battle. I am looking for ideas on what symbols I should use and what style it should have. I have pre-1914 OS maps of the area and Google earth maps as well as modern day photos of the area. Any ideas would be greatfully accepted.

    Sherpamick

  11. Simon Harley's Blog

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    By my reckoning 197 men served as Flag Officers on the Active List of the Royal Navy from August, 1914 to November, 1918. Only a small number of those are well-known, and by no means not all of them served afloat or ashore but were unemployed or were placed straight onto the Retired List. If anyone has any photos of flag officers lurking that they'd like to "share", or any other material for that matter, I'd be very interested in having a look at it. The ultimate aim is to collate a biographical dictionary of British Flag Officers, online and in print.

  12. Brian Adams' Blog

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    :poppy: Private Thomas Adams, No. 43302, serving with the 36th (ulster) div., with the British Armies in France.

    awarded for gallantry and devotion in the field, near Dadizeele, on 14th Oct. 1918.

    signed by Maj. Gen. C. Coffin, commanding

    The above paragraph is taken from a certificate I have, belonging to my grandfather, Thomas Adams, who fought during WWl with the 36th div and I enclose photograph, which shows my grandfather (in uniform) with my dad (Thomas (jnr) on his knee, and my grandfathers wife standing beside him. I

    I would be eternally greatful if anyone could help with advice etc., regarding career, uniform, areas where camped and trained, any medical or other documents, which battles he was involved in,when photo was taken etc. An impossible long shot would be photos of him in a group with comrades - but - I don't think thats going to be possible. He was, according to family chit-chat, once gassed at or near Ypress !!

    After the war he was a Docker at Coleraine Harbour, Co.Derry, Northern Ireland. I have only this one photo of him in uniform and another when he was more senior in years at a dinner dance in a hall at Killowen, Coleraine in 1954.

    He was, I believe, born around the Shuttle Hill area of Killowen in Coleraine. We used to live at 36 Shuttle Hill, about 1952 and then moved to new house, where we all lived until deaths or marriages moved us all on.

    I think it is very important for future generations that we preserve the memory of the cost in human life in the Great war, and the heroic actions of 'the few' who laid down their lives, for us, so that we could have our tomorrow. To them, we owe an immeasurable debt of gratitude.

    Lest we forget ........ at the going down of the sun .... we WILL remember them.

  13. g-collins' Blog

    Hi still looking for bits of imfo

    I have found 6 bde include btys heavy 109 114 Siege 6" 111 245 8" 227 9.2" 42.

    IF anyone has any history I would love to know

    regards Graham

  14. Odds and Ends

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    videre
    Latest Entry

    The Globe had to print a correction today -- instead of the previously reported eighteen thousand volunteers, to date at least eighty thousand men have come forward to volunteer for the Canadian overseas forces.

    News from Europe isn't promising as fifty-five of the seventy miles to the Belgian frontier has been taken by the Germans already. Still some resistance at key points (Liege, Antwerp, etc.), but no reports of either French or British troops in Belgium to help check the German advance.

    Another note of interest tucked away at the bottom of page two -- The New England Fat Man's Club had their annual trip to Montreal scheduled and a number of people backed out because they were worried that they'd find themselves in the middle of an armed conflict once they entered Canada! Or at least that's what some of the 125 brave souls (both members and their wives) who made the trip reported to the Canada Press. Tongue in cheek reporting perhaps?

  15. James Galvin's Blog

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    jamesgalvin13@aol.com
    Latest Entry

    Hi all, just joined the forum so looking for some support and assistance!!

    I am researching my Gt Grandfathers service life who served with the 4th Middlesex from 1914 - 1918.

    His name was Pte George Munns S/7250. From his medal index card i can see he was awarded the 1914 star and he first entered theatre on 22-10-14, I believe the regiment was involved in heavy fighting around Mons at the time. Unfortunately i know very little about what happend to him or the regiment after this date save for his discharge papers.

    He was discharged in March 1918 owing to injuries and wounds he had sustained, and given the silver war badge to wear.

    As he was awarded the 1914 star, would this imply he only served for the initial period of the war, or is it likely he could have served into 1915, 1916, 1917, and finally discharged in 1918? Like many family's i have been told he was at the "Somme"

    Can anybody advise please??

  16. redhorseengineers' Blog

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    Looking for Info.

    John McNally Serv. # 18155 RFA 3rd. Class Master Gunner. Born 14 July, 1850 Baltinglass, Ireland. Enlisted 1869 at Dublin with the 87th Irish Fusiliers and transfered to RFA 1870. India service 1876-1879 and 1880-1885. G.C. Medal awarded Army Order 137 April 1888.

    Edward Hugh McNally (Son to Above) Serv. #20857 RFA 3rd Class Master Gunner. Born 6 June, 1879 Poonamallee, India. Enlisted 1893 Kirkee, India RFA. Medals WWI Victory, British and 14 Star (qual 11 Sept. 1914).

    Now this is my Great-Grand father and Grand-Father. My Grand-Father left India early 1900 and was stationed in Cork, Belfast and then Waterford Ireland. They left Ireland around 1909 for India. He was with the 38th battery, 7th Brigade RFA Rawalpindi, India. He left India with one of the Indian Divisions as the 7th Brigade stayed in India. I researched the 3rd and 7th Indian divisions and believe he hitched a ride with the 7th Meerut Div. but this is just a "hunch". The Ministry of Defence thought it peculier that he went in this fassion. Doing more research I discovered that the Batterys in Cork, Belfast and Waterford, where he married during is stay in Ireland, went to France Aug. 1914 and I am wondering if he pulled some strings and when he got to France Oct. 1914 He caught up with the 24th or 34th RFA Battery that was stationed Waterford, Ireland. His wife and family(Cuddahy) were from Waterford and Edward Hugh stayed at the Waterford Barracks before marring??? We know he was Gassed in france and when he got discharged they lived in Waterford, Ireland till he passed away in 1925 of cancer at the Waterford Hospital. He tryed to get a Pension but both the British Gov. and the Ireland Gov. passed the "Buck" saying that the other should pay for his pension and medical bills. Sounds familuer!!!! I am A Vietnam vet. and I have gooten the run around with the US Gov. for the last 9...yes 9 years and still waiting. OK thats about all. If someone knows where I can get any info. on my Grand-Father during WWI that would be great. P.S. I don't see "spell-check" so what you see is what you get :blush: . Thanks Howard Rogers

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  17. Hello everyone, updating my blog for you all if your interested,

    I fell ill beginning of September and spent 4 hours an my A&E twice lol

    as long as i keep taking the tablets i am ok and dont get too breathless.

    Police have my lappy and computer cos the friend i took in has made threats to both herself and me as if it was her ex and they proved it wasnt him, he had an alibi! am now waiting for her to go court, 6 months on and she is still walking the streets!!!!!!!

    Seb has now gotten into so much trouble he is on a supervision order but at least the magistrate has orded him to get anger management so hopefully he will get calmer as the months pass,

    Bex is still not working and doesnt want too so have given her till the end of the month to sort it out or she has to go live elsewhere!

    good news is i have found a true friend across the road who looked after me and the kids while i was ill, if she hadn't i dont know where we would be now, she fed and watered us every day for 6 weeks! we pooled resourses and did the shopping together, i cooked if felt good but wasnt a problem if i didint.

    well thats it in a nut shell, feeling much better now just need my lappy back and i will be ok!

    Ok thats it for now,

    thanks for reading,

    love you all

    xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

    Mandy

  18. My Gt Uncle - A soldier during the First World War served with the 10th Bn The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regt, and was killed in action 20th September 1917 aged 23. His memorial is at TYNE COT MEMORIAL in Belgium, Grave reference Panel 14 to 17 and 162 to 162A

    any information on his whereabouts when he was killed would be appreciated

    Many thanks

    Maritimapete

  19. Ozzie's Blog

    • 41
      entries
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    Ozzie
    Latest Entry

    Well, long time, no post.

    My story is about to hit print.

    Not through some glamorous publisher, but by my own devices, and the help of friends in the profession.

    You see, some of what I have written is now, not PC. They wanted me to change things. That is changing history. You can't do that, because that is how it was.

    I have been a member of this forum for a while, and have not contributed with the dollars.

    So, I get this idea to donate some of my books to it, when they are printed, so that the forum can get the funds.

    I submitted this idea, as it turned out, when Chris was handing over to the new team. It seemed to have got lost. But communication with Admin restored and all looks good.

    Low and behold, someone else had the same idea. Good on him, maybe others could do the same, so as to raise more funds for the forum.

    Yeh, I know , mine's not there yet, but it is acoming!!!.

    In my wandering jottings, I realise just how much I owe to this and another forum. To the members who answered my naive questions, who picked me up when I was down, who inspired, goaded, and stretched me.

    To the cyber friends I have made, sharing their joys and losses, their day to day lives, their knowledge, it has helped to biuld a better understanding of those from foriegn countries, and to cement a fact, that although we live thousands of miles apart, our problems are very similiar, and our ability to overcome, and share, can help others. As members have helped me to do.

    Putting this story in print means I must move on, to another era, and yet, I find I can't. Such has been the power of those whose lives were torn asunder by WW1, I find I keep returning, and wondering, and appreciating their efforts, and sacrificies.

    Nearly a year ago, I went on a journey. A journey that exceeded my wildest expectations.

    Walking the ground that the men of WW1 fought over, being shown, by holes in the earth, rows of cold stone, new woods;... the loss, the waste.

    Of present day people who remember and appreciate the efforts of two- three generations ago, of good friendship from strangers.

    A group of Aussies who were strangers at the airport, but through the experiences of the battlefields have reached a special understanding, becoming so close, in some ways, closer than parteners, or brothers and sisters, because we know what the other feels, when those about us have no idea why we are drawn to people and events of 90 so years ago, we were brought together by such intense emotions, shared and supported on those old battlefields.

    So in my meandering jottings, I wish to thank all those who have helped me, in posting, and PM's and emails.

    It is what makes this forum such a great resource, an extended community, and a haven from that mad, mad world. (That we Skindler's so often , .....well, we know, don't we?)

    End of meandering thoughts.

    Kim

  20. Ancestry put service records online ...

    I had no great hope of finding any relative's service papers when the A-C records went online at Ancestry, only about 30% of records having survived WWII bombs, and only 2 known Clay ancestors of an age to be eligible for service - and one of them, Grandad Charles Henry Clay, had, I'd already found with help from GWF Pals, almost certainly served in the Volunteer Training Corps, the Great War fore-runner of 'Dad's Army'.

    So, I was intrigued when I found records for a Thomas Clay. Could this be Grandad's half-brother?

    What a wonderful place this internet is ...

    Well. yes, it could. He wasn't using his middle name, Archibald and the papers recorded his mother's name as Hannah, not Ann as on all other records I'd seen. But the points which convinced me this was our Thomas were his age - only two Thomas Clays of the right age appeared in the freeBMD index to birth registrations - our Thomas Archibald, registered in Warwick, and a Thomas Henry, registered in Chesterfield; his location - Leamington Spa, where he had been born in 1892; the fact that his mother was living in Birmingham, where his father had died in 1912; and his trade - he was a tailor, like his Grandfather and at least one uncle before him.

    Thomas enlists under the Derby Scheme

    Like millions of other Britons, Thomas had not enlisted in the initial surge of patriotic fervour. As more and more men were needed for the front as the War moved into its 15th month, and insufficient numbers were volunteering, the newly appointed Director-General of Recruiting, Lord Derby, took steps to remedy the situation; Lord Derby was appointed D-G on 11 October 1915 and his programme for raising the numbers, known as the Derby Scheme, which required men to attest with an obligation to come if called up, was quickly put in place. A detailed description of the Derby Scheme can be found on The Long, Long Trail

    Thomas attested at Leamington Spa on 11 December, 1915. His attestation form (below) appears to show that he was initially assigned to the RAMC, service number 16592 (but other papers indicate he was assigned to the Royal Warwicks) but, before posting to the BEF, he was transferred to the Machine Gun Corps, with new service number 36360.

    ClayThomasArmyattestation1915pag-1.jpg

    Having attested, and been assigned to the Army Reserve, Thomas returned home to await mobilisation. This came just a few weeks later - on 9 February 1916, he was posted to the depot of 3rd Battn, Royal Warwickshire Regt at Warwick, where he underwent time-honoured enlistment procedures. He was medically examined on 10 February and the Medical History form (below) shows that he was a man of slight build - 5 ft 4 1/2 tall, weighing 8 stone 5 lbs and with a surprising entry under 'marks indicating ... previous disease' - he was absolutely bald, due to alopecia areata.

    ClayThomasArmyattestation1915-dupli.jpg

    Thomas remained at Warwick until 17 July, undergoing training, but on 13 May was transferred from the RAMC (or the RWR) to the MGC. On 17 July he was posted to the BEF in France, and was assigned to 100 Coy, MGC on the 21st. Thomas was at war.

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    Before we get going, this is what the papers said of Sgt Skinner:

    This extract comes from Kentish Express and Ashford News February 9 1918

    For Their King and Country

    "Mr & Mrs Joseph Skinner of the Street, Great Chart have received official news of the death of their eldest son , Sergeant Albert Skinner of the Royal West Kents. Sergeant Skinner joined the Buffs in October 1914 and proceeded to
    Gallipoli
    where he was attached to the Royal West Kents. Leaving the Dardanelles he went to
    Egypt
    and was wounded in the attack at
    El Arish
    . After being in hospital for several months he rejoined his unit and was killed by a shell at Tel el Khuweil-Feir, north of
    Beersheba
    . In a letter received from the Colonel it stated “Sergeant Skinner was killed while advancing against the Turks on 4th November. He was buried where he fell in a little valley below the hill which was eventually taken from the enemy. Not only his own platoon but the officers and men of the whole battalion lost a great friend when Sgt Skinner was killed. He was with the battalion from the formation and was always so cheery and good hearted even in the hardest times.

  21. styles' Blog

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    Ernest Stanley Styles joined the Essex Yeomanry in 1914 and served until his discharge in 1919. He was an OR and survived his horrendous ordeal without serious wounds. In about 1972 his grandchildren perseuded him to write his story about the war. This he did in great detail from his date of enlistment until his discharge. A copy of this record is in the War Museum, London and also locally in the Essex War Museum.

    The overwhelming feeling when one reads his story is of the futility of the whole affair. As with many others he has avoided writing about his comrades and their frequent deaths but has portrayed the conditions of the battles etc.

    Ernest died in 1984 aged 91 and was a much loved kind and gentle man.

  22. 147 pte / 2nd lt Hubert Joseph Foley R. Warwicks and S. Staffs

    Born 30 October 1894 (Cradley Heath)

    01 census Corngreaves Road , Cradley Heath

    Joseph E. Foley 28 carter

    Laura Foley 29

    Hubert J. Foley 6

    Norman Foley 4 months

    Enlisted 21st September 1914 (Moseley) into 16th Warwicks (3rd Birmingham Pals)

    Address 114 Grainger's Lane , Cradley Heath

    Occupation- insurance clerk

    landed France 21/11/15

    during the attack on Falfemont Farm on the 3rd September 1916 he was wounded g.s. wound right arm

    went back to France 18/1/17

    posted to 15th Warwicks 5/2/17

    during the attack on Vimy Ridge 9th April 1917 he was wounded g.s. wound left thigh

    Appointed to temp. commision with the 3rd South Staffs (London Gazette 18th March 1918)

    wounded again ! with 4th S. Staffs 29th May 1918 (g.s. wound head!)

    placed on retired list on account of ill-health caused by wounds 25/2/19

    applied in 1955 for a pension because of his wounds. He states ' A bullet penetrated lobe of right ear and passed throught head leaving partial paralysis and limited movement of head'

    Hubert Joseph Foley died in the Stourbridge area in the Oct.Nov.Dec quarter 1969

  23. Our Growing Departments

    With our ever-increasing beds, all the departments in the hospital increase accordingly. In the early days we had R.A.M.C.T. men entirely in the offices, stores, post office, etc. Now nearly all – or at least the greater proportion – of the men have disappeared. Some have gone abroad with the R.A.M.C., others have transferred to fighting units, and many are on hospital ships. Then the problem was, who was to replace them?

    I remember, a very long time ago, one of the heads of the Red Cross Society coming down and discussing with us how women could be employed. Gradually a scheme evolved, and the first military hospital to try it was the 3rd London.

    The lady orderlies came, were approved of, and proved the greatest help to us; gradually, lady clerks, typists, postwomen, enquiry department, linen storekeepers, steward store assistants, telephone operators, cooks and charladies became installed; and today the ever green picture, “Can Women do our Work?” is answered, I think, by everyone concerned – Yes.

    From a Matron’s point of view I looked on the influx of women with a sinking heart. I already had over 300 women for whom I was responsible; and when the War Office decided that all women employed in a military hospital should come directly under the Matron I nearly wept – and felt certainly that it was more than one could bear. Now when I look back over all those changes I still marvel how it was done. But the fact remains today that we have somewhere about 500 women employed in the different departments of the hospital; and, apart from this making my office work very heavy, I do not feel the responsibility any greater. This in itself, I think, speaks volumes for the loyal help we get.

    The different departments all run smoothly. The Quartermaster’s office has two lady clerks, the C.O. has one, the Matron one, the Registrar’s office has many. I shall never forget poor Captain Gosse’s face when he first heard that ladies were going to be admitted into his office. He looked hopeless. And until the day he went away he always referred to them as “the little bits of fluff in my office.”

    Two ladies are responsible for the card index where, within a few minutes, you can look up any patient who has ever been in the hospital. Another does the typing, another helps with the discharges. Three ladies answer all enquiries in the front hall, and seem to me to spend half their time directing people to the D corridor. I often hear, “Yes; left, right, left, right, then you had better enquire again”; and I wonder whether the visitor ever finds his way to D at all.

    We have two ladies on the telephone and four in the post office. The postal arrangements are to my mind perfect, and hardly ever is there complaint of letters going astray of being misdirected, which is wonderful, considering the thousands of letters and parcels that pass through this office. Then in the pay office we have a lady clerk. Next along the passage is the massage room. I see that a very excellent article has already been sent about this department, so there is no need for me to say anything. I hope, however, it won’t be long before Miss Layton and her helpers will get their new room.

    Then we come to the stores. All clean linen is given out by ladies who work under the supervision of the Quartermaster, much of the work is now done by ladies, who all come under what we call the General Duty Section. The kitchens too, now have many women replacing men. In the general kitchen we still have the staff-sergeant cook, who is responsible, but in the sick officers’ kitchen there is a V.A.D. cook, and also in the orderlies’ kitchen.

    The scrubbers are also a great feature – and it is astonishing how easily they lose themselves in this huge place and what a lot of finding they require sometimes!

    I feel that this article sounds rather like an essay on “Women’s Rights.” I am not a suffragette, and no one will welcome men back to their old jobs more than I shall, but I do feel that women have shown how much they can help, in this war, as well as men. And I know they will continue as long as they are needed. When we are not needed, then we shall just let the men have their own back again, and look after us as they used to – and it will be very pleasant to be looked after again, I think!

    Edith Holden, Matron.

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