Posted 08 December 2010 - 10:26 AM
Thank you Tony and Doc.
I attach the article for your reference.
About a Rifle.
We need rifles—good ones. We need to be able to handle them and to shoot straight. When taking position to fire keep the body rigid but not stiff. The firer should be at right angles to the target, legs slightly apart, with his elbows and lower part of chest forming a triangle. Rest the stock of the rifle in the hollow of left hand, the thumb slightly resting on the side of or just under the barrel, holding the gun firmly but not tightly. It is the right hand does all the work, and keeps the sights straight and true on the “bull.” The ball of the thumb should be pressed against the thick part of the stock, the fingers should grasp, or partly grasp, the “hand,” and the first joint of the first finger should rest lightly on the trigger, whilst the heel; of the stock is held, by steady pressure of the right hand right into the shoulder. You thus avoid the kick. Having thrust your cartridge into the .rifle and closed the breech with a smart snap, the rifleman must first get the stock comfortably fixed against his shoulder, then—though the mode of procedure here varies—bring your foresight down from the top of the target to about an inch below the “bull,” then, fixing your attention on the little black disc, get your foresight; seen through the V in the backsight, just touching the “bull,” pull—not jerk—the trigger, and your first bullet has been sent, at some 2,000 feet per second, towards its mark. A bullet does not travel in a straight line, but, under the influence of gravity and friction, begins to drop almost as soon as it leaves the muzzle. The bullet of a service rifle drops six inches in the first 100 yards, but when it had gone 200 yards it will have dropped not twelve inches but two feet. The drop increases with the distance. Were there no sights, on the rifle and you wanted to hit a mark at 200 yards you would have to aim two feet above it. The sights of a rifle enable you to keep your eye on the mark although the muzzle of the rifle is actually pointing above it. The movable slide of the backsight enables you automatically to point the muzzle just so many feet above the mark aimed at as is necessary to counteract the known drop of the bullet at various ranges.
Soldiers, volunteers, everybody, need to be able to judge distances. In war a man’s life may hang on his ability to estimate the range of a foeman. It’s an interesting business to be able to judge distances. To learn measure out a distance of, say, one hundred yards, and carefully study it. Then pick out objects in other directions which in your estimation are one hundred yards away, and test your judgment by actual pacing. In this way you will come automatically to recognise a distance of one hundred yards or thereabouts, and you can then estimate a longer distance by reckoning it as being so many times one hundred yards. Another exercise is to get a friend to show himself standing, kneeling, and lying down at various known distances. You should then carefully note and memorise the different appearance he presents according to the distance. You will find that at one hundred yards you can clearly see details of his clothing, which are only partially visible at 150 yards, and quite invisible at 200 yards. Distances are over estimated when the observer is kneeling, sitting, or lying; when both the back-ground and the object are of a similar colour; when heat is rising from the ground; when the ground is undulating or broken, or when looking over a valley; when the object lies in the shade, is only partially seen, or is viewed in mist or a bad light. In long streets, avenues, and ravines, things look farther away than they really are. Distances are underestimated when the sun is behind the observer; when both the background and the object are of different colours, and again when the object is large or is seen in a bright light or clear atmosphere. Should the intervening ground be level, or covered with snow, the object will appear nearer than it is. The observer should also add five to ten per cent, on to his original estimate when he is looking over water or a deep chasm, or, again, when looking upwards or downwards.