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British and Empire Tents and Shelters of the Great War

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thejungleisneutral

Tents were the basic standard of troop accommodation for British and Empire troops during the Great War.

 

I thought it might be handy to create a thread to document British and Empire tent identification, usage and lore.

 

To be honest, I don't know that much about Great War-era tents, which is where you come in... if you have any further information or photos or have discovered errors in this post especially, please let us know. I'm learning about these tents as I go.

 

Note: I'll continue to edit this post as new information comes to light.

 

 

Tents, Circular -  (Bell Tents)

 

1. Victorian-era Mk II "single" circular tent. - appears in 1893 Stores Vocabulary

 

2. Victorian-Edwardian Mk III "single" circular tent. - appears in 1893 Stores Vocabulary

 

3. Edwardian-era Mk IV "single" circular tent. - This was a 12 foot diameter model which can be identified by having a slightly shorter peak than the later models. The tent in the AWM photo H02156 above appears to be one of these. - appears in 1893 Stores Vocabulary

4110206.JPG.c0b186e20afece85ec3f95f277a2d38e.JPG

Image from www.awm.gov.au AWMH02156

A troop tent at a recruit training depot at Enoggera in Queensland during 1916. The tent was occupied by either 9 or 8 men and as can be seen by the serial "QDF 704" stenciled above the door, it is a pre-1901 tent from the former colonial Queensland Defence Force.

 

4. Great War/Second World War era Mk V "single" circular tent. 12.5 foot diameter. These were standard troop accommodation from Gallipoli to the Western Front. They usually accommodated 12 men with their kit. The occupants slept foot to pole, arranged in a star-burst layout.

 

5. "Double" circular tent - as in double layer

4056827.JPG.021f6ec02e5e8c7177f2138a7764431c.JPG

AWMB00182 via awm.gov.au

Tent Circular, Double at the Australian camp at Kantara, Egypt in 1918. The "doub;e" refers to the double layer which can be seen via the open door flaps of the tent.  

 

6. "EPIP" circular tent. Used widely in Palestine and Egypt. "EPIP" is an acronym, the meaning of which I am unsure. I have seen it defined as "Eight Personnel India Pattern", "Eight Person Indian Pattern",  "European Personnel Indian Pattern", "European Private's India Pattern", "Egyptian pattern, Indian patent" and even "English Pattern Indian Product". The tent can be easily identified by the tall peak and the lack of an eave above the wall section. During the Second World War, troops in the North Africa theatre were issued with EPIP tents, but these 1940s versions were of a different pattern, and described as square rather than circular. 

6332450.JPG.6717292e93d2fb227fc356c45293caaa.JPG

EPIP tents and 2-man bivvies at the Australian Light Horse camp at the Deir el Belah oasis, Palestine January 1918. At rear of image, across from the line of horses can be seen three standard British circular tents.

Image from www.awm.gov.au AWM B01615

 

Shelter Tents - (Bivvies and such)

 

1. Mk I shelter. Originally called a Tente d'Abri before being designated Mk I. It is described in several of Wolseley's miltary books from the 1870s. It was a two-man bivouac shelter constructed from two purpose-made waterproof sheets fastened together in much the same way as US shelter halves/"pup" tents. Early versions were 8' 6" in length and later reduced to 6' with two 4' ash poles. Usually made of white duck canvas. 

B-52640.jpeg.55eec6e162bcb064f6c4f75367d00fc2.jpeg

Ref: South Australian State Library B52640

What appears to be a Mk I shelter in use by Australian Light Horse at an encampment in Palestine, 1917.

 

2. Mk II shelter. Two-man bivouac shelter introduced in Nov 1914. It was 6"long by 4"high and the shelter was of one-piece rather than two sections like the Mk I.. The Mk II was open at one end and closed by flaps at the other. Originally manufactured in white cotton duck but later changed to Khaki by at least 1916.This was issued with two weather lines, 6 loop lines, two poles made of ash and 4' high, 7 small pins and 1 tent mallet. I believe that a variation of this basic shelter soldiered on in UK service into the 1990s as the Tent, Bivouac, Cotton Duck 8340-99-210-6699 and it differed from the WWI-era Mk II shelter only in that it had a lower profile (3 feet high instead of 4 feet high like the Great War-era Mk II shelter), the open end was closed in by a vertical canvas panel, and some variants were fitted with mosquito netting. 

3786655.JPG.fa6b7aef48adf8311689f58a64c8f057.JPG

AWM ART03331 via awm.gov.au

Painting by H Septimus Power depicts an AIF encampment in Flanders, 1917. Tents are Mk II shelters. 

 

3. Improvised Bivouac shelters. Also called d'Abri, these were improvised from service blankets or groundsheets. The "official" method of constructing a d'Abri was to lace two groundsheets together along the long side, and then pitch the resulting shelter as an "A" between two poles, sticks or trees.

dabri.jpg.bea8deac0fd2cfb394b0eb943e2cbaf6.jpg

Shelter tent/d'Abri pictured in the British Field Service Pocket Book, 1914: 
Ref: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006520644

 

Ridge Tents - (Tents with ridged peaks and short walls) 

These were ridged wall tents. Will update as more info comes to light.

 

Indian Pattern - 

 

1. 160 Lb - 22' foot x 16' foot

 

2. 80 Lb - 16' x 10'

 

3. 40 Lb - 12' x 10'

 

4. 21 Lb - 9 1/2' x 7'

 

 

Edited by thejungleisneutral

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Kimberley John Lindsay

Dear thejungleisneutral,

Here are some tents in British Army usage, during 1-28 Londons training in 5997b62559837_BeazeleyRichardParkCampMar-Aug19151-28LondonsG.B..jpg.4ff81d6206fe0855c37803f42c5992cb.jpg March 1915 before deployment to France.

Kindest regards,

Kim.

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thejungleisneutral

Thanks for the reply Kim, most informative. I note with interest that the tents used in the camp shown appear to be the shorter Victorian-era type.

 

I managed to discern a little further information about circular tents via a pdf file on the Historic Military Vehicle Forum - http://www.hmvf.co.uk/pdf/TENTS Version 02.pdf

 

The author of the document, Clive Elliot discusses the Mk. 5, the last mark of traditional circular tent which was in service from the 1930s until they were retired beginning in the 1960s. I have heard anecdotal evidence that these tents weren't finally declared obsolete and replaced in some UK Territorial units until the 1990s. In Australian service these types of tents had been completely replaced by various ridged wall tents by the end of the Second World War.

 

According to Clive Elliot, the designation for the tents was "Tents, C.S.". C.S. meant Circular, Single, which meant a single-layer tent.

4038295.JPG.9058ca8917a74f8666ffe701b4453af9.JPG

AWMDAOD0893 via awm.gov.au

Tent Circular, Single at Seymour army camp, Victoria Australia circa 1915

 

Another type was called the "Tents, C.D.". C.D. meant Circular, Double. CD tents were used in particularly cold weather and were double layer canvas. 

4056827.JPG.021f6ec02e5e8c7177f2138a7764431c.JPG

AWMB00182 via awm.gov.au

Tent Circular, Double at the Australian camp at Kantara, Egypt in 1918. The "doub;e" refers to the double layer which can be seen via the open door flaps of the tent.  

 

The specs for the Mk 5 tent were as follows:

 

Floor space: 13 ft 6 in diameter

Height to apex: 9 ft 9 in

Height of walls: 2 ft 2 in

Pitching party: 2 men

Total weight: 84 lb or 100 lb

 

How different to the Mk 5 model were the Great War era models?

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Old Tom

I can't quote specifications or types, however these were still in widespread use in the 1940's and 50's. There was one in my Boy Scout troop in the 40's and I recall them in large numbers at JTC camps in 1949 and 1950.

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thejungleisneutral

Thanks for the post Old Tom. It's amazing these old tents were still in use in the 50s!

 

Some tidbits from the British Field Service Pocket Book, 1914: 
Ref: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006520644

 

- The Tent Circular Single has a radius (?) of 9 3/4 feet.

 

- The Tent Circular Double has a radius (?) of 10 feet

 

One Tent Circular is used to accommodate the following - 

 

1 x General, Colonel or Commanding Officer.
3 x other officers
5 x Warrant Officers
7 x Serjeants
15 x Men

 

Directions for Pitching Tents Circular:

 

  • Mark centre with peg. Describe a circle, with a radius of 4 paces, on which the pegs will be. In this circle, drive in the two pegs opposite the door of the tent, one pace apart. At 3 paces from these pegs, on either side of them, drive in pegs for guy ropes. The other guy rope pegs will be 5 paces from these and 5 paces from each other.
  • Put up tent. Pole to be set and kept perfectly upright. 
  • Drive in the other pegs, which should be one pace apart and in line with the seams of the tent.
  • Doors, if possible, point to leeward.
  • 7 1/2 yards from centre to centre of tents.
  • Cut drains round bottom of tent walls and heap earth inside flap.
  • Dig a hole 6 inches deep close to tent pole, then if heavy rain comes on suddenly, the tent pole can be pushed into the hole and much strain is taken off the canvas, ropes and pegs.

 

According to the specs above, if these tents they are describing have a radius of 9.75 feet then  that's a diameter of around 19.5 feet/6 metres. Could they be describing the larger "16 foot" tents? 

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thejungleisneutral

Expanding the scope of the thread a little to include other personnel tents and shelters, here's a fascinating and informative post from the Late Joe Sweeney from back in the beginning of 2005 - http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/topic/25695-british-wwii-tents/#comment-200361

 

Quote

R Pope,

The Circular tents were carried in a Valise MKII which was 3ft 8inX 2Ft 6in. The Pole MKII was 11ft 10in and in two pieces, the pole MK III was 9ft 9in and also in two pieces. WWI were the same as Boer era Bell tents except the MKIV was used in the Boer War which had 24 bracing lines-The MK V used in WWI had 26 Bracing lines--no difference in weight.

GIjoe

The main tentage on inventory in 1915 and throughout the war were:

Circular, Double Linen--with a 10' radius (Bell Tent

Circular, Single Linen--MKV--with a 9' 3/4"radius (Bell Tent)

Circular, Laboratory not used for Bivouacs

Marquee, Hospital-Large--35'X17' not used for Bivouacs.

Marquee, small, double --31'X16' .

Marquee, small, single --31'X16' .

Operating--not used for Bivouacs.

Shelter, MKI---Two sheets, early versions were 8' 6" in length and later reduced to 6' with two 4' ash poles. Two man tent early in its existance (circa 1862 LoC 443) was called a Tent d'abri later MKI (Oct 1908 LoC 14290). Usually made of white duck. The term Tent d'Abri later became to mean a tent made up with field expediant items such as groundsheets and blankets.

Shelter, MKII---Introduced in Nov 1914 (LoC 16936) was 6"long by 4"high. Two man--did not disassemble was open at one end and closed by flaps at the other. First ones were white cotton duck but later changed to Khaki--Khaki ones dated 1916 are encountered. This was issued with two weather lines, 6 loop lines, two poles made of ash and 4' high (Same as the MKI), 7 small pins (Wood-13") and 1 tent mallet. The MKI came with the same equipment list but came in two sheets and disassembled.

Store Tent--not used for Bivouacs.

Thing you should keep in mind is that none of the tents were issued at the unit level for fighting troops (regimental, Battalion, or battery) as part of the mobilization stores. This included the shelters. They were not carried by the soldier nor carried in the Battalion transport. These were only issued as needed in rear areas.

Joe Sweeney

 

 

Edited by thejungleisneutral

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NigelS

Interesting topic. I have always known these as 'Bell' tents, which as far as I can see, hasn't so far been mentioned #. My understanding is that these were popular with youth organisations (Scouts, Guides, Boys Brigade etc) for standing camps between the wars and  immediately post WWII. I would guess that this was probably down to the ready availability of cheap army surplus stock.

 

# at least until the previous post ...

 

NigelS

Edited by NigelS
comment added

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thejungleisneutral

So, according to http://www.hmvf.co.uk/pdf/TENTS Version 02.pdf the WWII era Tent Circular was the "Mk 5" and this was introduced in the 1930s. However, Joe Sweeney (quoted above) states that the Mk V tent circular was the one used during the Great War, with the Mk IV being used during the Boer War.

 

What would explain this discrepancy? Did the British War Office change their nomenclature for the various marks from roman numerals (Mk V) to arabic numerals (Mk 5) in the 1930s? If this was the case, then the WWII-era tents circular would be the same pattern as the WWI-era tents circular? Or am I way off the mark?

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thejungleisneutral
11 minutes ago, NigelS said:

Interesting topic. I have always known these as 'Bell' tents, which as far as I can see, hasn't so far been mentioned #. My understanding is that these were popular with youth organisations (Scouts, Guides, Boys Brigade etc) for standing camps between the wars and  immediately post WWII. I would guess that this was probably down to the ready availability of cheap army surplus stock.

 

# at least until the previous post ...

 

NigelS

 

Hi NigelS, 

 

I don't know if the term "bell tent" was used during the WWI era or whether it was a more modern term. As for surplus tents being used by youth groups post-war, they certainly were popular.

 

Just a couple of years ago I was offered one which was being sold by a Girl Guide troop who had had it in storage since the 1960s. Sadly the deal fell through or I would have answered all of my own questions about these tents back then :-D

 

Over at the Australian War memorial there's a collection record for a bell tent which not only provides some nice measurements for a WWI-era tent, but describes its use postwar by a Salvation Army youth group. They picked it up as army surplus in 1919 and it soldiered on with the youth group until 1940 at least. https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C1141214

 

Info and measurements listed at the link are as follows:

  • Canvas upper cone-shaped section - 297cm high (with the wall factored in, that makes this tent 11 3/4 feet high)
  • Made of 21 triangular sections sewn together
  • Wall - 61cm high
  • Areas reinforced with 2 inch hessian tape
  • 22 guy ropes.
  • Dimensions of wooden guy rope sliders - 12.5cm x 3cm x 1.5cm
  • 3 ventilators near the top of the tent, each 58cm long.
  • The tent closures are brass hooks and eyelets rather than dutch lacing.

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thejungleisneutral

...

Edited by thejungleisneutral
other party deleted the post I was replying to.

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NigelS
12 minutes ago, thejungleisneutral said:

...I don't know if the term "bell tent" was used during the WWI era or whether it was a more modern term. As for surplus tents being used by youth groups post-war, they certainly were popular.

 

A 1905 Canadian patent (use 'original document' at top left to view)  https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument?CC=CA&NR=91639A&KC=A&FT=D&ND=3&date=19050221&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP  indicates that it was; The Oxford English Dictionary also gives '1785 Roy in Phil. Trans. LXXV. 393 One of the pyramidal *bell-tents‥being placed at the station',  although it's not clear that it's a circular version that's actually being referred to.

 

NigelS

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morrisc8

2/5th Battalion East Surrey Regiment 1917 in Kent.

Original photos taken from my ww1 negatives.

  Keith

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 40 Sgt Twigg. kent 4  6 17 .jpg

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 82  H and B. tent kent 26 7 17 .jpg

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 76 . Cpl  G W Moors. 15 7 1917 kent .jpg

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 81 . No 0 Section tent kent 25 7 17 .jpg

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thejungleisneutral
16 minutes ago, NigelS said:

 

A 1905 Canadian patent (use 'original document' at top left to view)  https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument?CC=CA&NR=91639A&KC=A&FT=D&ND=3&date=19050221&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP  indicates that it was; The Oxford English Dictionary also gives '1785 Roy in Phil. Trans. LXXV. 393 One of the pyramidal *bell-tents‥being placed at the station',  although it's not clear that it's a circular version that's actually being referred to.

 

NigelS

Thanks Nigel. Looks like the term "Bell Tent: has been use for a long time.

 

Interesting patent document too. Thanks for the link. It looks like a standard circular tent with a plethora of extra ventilators added to the peak and a "drip strip" added around the eaves.

 

Re: the use of these tents by youth groups post-war I found some photos of one on Flikr which could very well be the same ex-girl guides tent I was in the running for. Tent is now in use by an Australian Great War reenactment group.

 

Pics attached are from Flikr user David McKinley -

Tent is described as 14 ft, ex-Girl Guides.

 

WWI reenactors British Standard 14ft tents. Ex girl guide tents.

 

WWI reenactors British Standard 14ft tents. Ex girl guide tents.

 

WWI reenactors British Standard 14ft tents. Ex girl guide tents.WWI reenactors British Standard 14ft tents. Ex girl guide tents.

 

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thejungleisneutral
14 minutes ago, morrisc8 said:

2/5th Battalion East Surrey Regiment 1917 in Kent.

Original photos taken from my ww1 negatives.

  Keith

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 40 Sgt Twigg. kent 4  6 17 .jpg

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 82  H and B. tent kent 26 7 17 .jpg

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 76 . Cpl  G W Moors. 15 7 1917 kent .jpg

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 81 . No 0 Section tent kent 25 7 17 .jpg

 

Fantastic photos Keith, thanks for posting them. I notice with interest that the tent closest to the photographer in the first picture appears to have had camouflage patterned dye or paint applied?

 

Since the tents were originally white, I wonder when instructions came through to dull them down?

154700-small.jpg.ab733aa84b40b126fb301dbac9310fa6.jpg

Museums Victoria Item MM 2370 - from https://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/items/772518

Australian army recruits at Broadmeadows army camp in Victoria, Australia 1915. The men's giggle hats are white, so the tent in the background must have been dyed or painted.

 

4090196.JPG.6c44ec59d7512484c090de033cc2e827.JPG

AWME04681 via awm.gov.au

A camouflaged AIF tent at Potijze Farm, in the Ypres Sector, October 1917. Aaside from the vegetation stacked up against the tent, the tent appears to have been painted too.

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thejungleisneutral

Floors in circular tents...

 

In a camp environment tents were typically pitched on wooden platforms. This kept dust down, and in damp climates stopped the floor of the tent turning to mud. A very important consideration if your gear had to be presented for inspection every day.

 post-63666-0-98861300-1416408673_thumb.jpg.21cab8580ffafb5374faf53eec06aa2d.jpg

IWM Q 33716 via http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205299142

A pair of armourers working in a makeshift workshop at Tadworth Camp in the UK - The workshop is a standard circular tent with wooden flooring.

 

Groundsheets were commonly used for temporary encampments, but for those closer to the front lines, shell scrapes were often dug inside the tent which offered a bit of extra protection beyond the sanbagged walls of the tent.

3965164.JPG.c598f5949ddc493329f487c500f537b8.JPG

AWMART00130 - via awm.gov.au

Lt Henry Horace McKeown of the 11th Brigade Artillery reading inside his tent at Saint-Souplet in northern France in 1917. He is sitting in a groundsheet-lined shell scrape dung into the floor of his tent. painting by George Bell.

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Kimberley John Lindsay

Dear tjin,

Super AWM possession.

The artist, George Bell, skilfully picked out miriad details with a few strokes of the brush: binoculars case; Sam Browne cross-strap; high laced-boots, and especially the horses placed under the trees.

In 1917, Lieut H. H. McKeown, presumably AIF, had a long way to go before Return to Australia.

Kindest regards,

Kim. 

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thejungleisneutral
11 hours ago, Kimberley John Lindsay said:

Dear tjin,

Super AWM possession.

The artist, George Bell, skilfully picked out miriad details with a few strokes of the brush: binoculars case; Sam Browne cross-strap; high laced-boots, and especially the horses placed under the trees.

In 1917, Lieut H. H. McKeown, presumably AIF, had a long way to go before Return to Australia.

Kindest regards,

Kim. 

Hi Kim, the artist certainly got the little details right. It's a shame I didn't - the tent Lt McKeown is using is some type of ridge tent rather than a circular tent. During the war, Lt McKeown served with the Australian 7th Light Horse Regiment in the middle east before transferring to artillery. At the time the painting was created, he was with the 11th Brigade Artillery in France. He remained in the army until 1920, going on to serve with the 1st Light Horse and at time of discharge he was a Temporary Captain.

 

I have updated and reorganised the original post, and have included several types of shelter/bivouac tents.  

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Kimberley John Lindsay

Dear tjin,

Good work!

Kindest regards,

Kim.

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Maureene

Link from JRAMC  Corps News for May 1914. http://jramc.bmj.com/content/jramc/22/5/101.full.pdf

Includes page 106 Manoevres in Egypt  [March 1914] which refers to tents used, which appear to be Indian Army tents.

tents  G.S. India 160lb single fly, suitable for pack-mule, or camel transport.

tents, mountain service

tent (lascar, store)

 

This previous post says 

Ridge tents (G.S. tents India) came in a range of sizes

160 Pounder( Lbs) = 22' foot x 16' foot

80 Lbr = 16' x 10'

40 Lbr = 12' x 10'

21 Lbr = 9!/2' x 7'

Officer's = 14' x 9'

 

Cheers

Maureen

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robins2

post-55705-055489900%201289788104.jpg 

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thejungleisneutral
9 hours ago, Maureene said:

 

Link from JRAMC  Corps News for May 1914. http://jramc.bmj.com/content/jramc/22/5/101.full.pdf

Includes page 106 Manoevres in Egypt  [March 1914] which refers to tents used, which appear to be Indian Army tents.

tents  G.S. India 160lb single fly, suitable for pack-mule, or camel transport.

tents, mountain service

tent (lascar, store)

 

This previous post says 

Ridge tents (G.S. tents India) came in a range of sizes

160 Pounder( Lbs) = 22' foot x 16' foot

80 Lbr = 16' x 10'

40 Lbr = 12' x 10'

21 Lbr = 9!/2' x 7'

Officer's = 14' x 9'

 

Cheers

Maureen

 

Thanks @Maureene, I haven't yet delved into the mysteries of the various ridged "pounder" wall tents. I do know there were two styles - standard, and the Indian Patterns, which usually had a higher roof for better airflow in the tropics.

 

I've updated the original post with placeholders for these Indian Pattern lb tents.

 

Cheers!

Edited by thejungleisneutral

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Lanayca

I was sleeping in a bell tent this year at Passchendale and although I can't tell much about the dimensions I can tell you that if the pole goes through the roof at night the swift insertion of an enamel mug between pole and hole can keep the tent up until a more permanent repair!

 

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Tomo.T

Thought you might like to see this company from Antwerp, British Army Tents. They are bringing out a range of authentic tents, sadly the link does not work but you can find them on Facebook.

 

 https://www.facebook.com/British-Army-Tents-483514498516536/

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robins2

post-55705-096714500%201291450597.jpg

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morrisc8

2/5th Battalion East Surrey Regiment 1917 in Kent.

A few more from my Original photos taken from my ww1 negatives.

  Keith

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 56 CQMS H and Lee and B . kent  24  7 1917 .jpg

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo  Cpl.  kent .jpg

2.5th Battalion East Surrey Regimemnt 1917 photo 77 tent. V . 18 7 17 kent .jpg

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